CITIZENS TRUCK COMPANY NO. 4? Here’s another of Trevor James’ classic B&W shots of fire action in Frederick, Maryland. We don’t have any background details on this photo, but, given what we’ve often called “The American Truck Company’s” unique inventory of Hawk Tool prototypes, it is a safe bet that this short, Phase II’s off of one of their rigs. As is always the case when one of these oldsters shows up, any and all additional information would be most welcomed.
IOWA-AMERICAN HERITAGE. Given Iowa-American Firefighting Equipment’s relatively short life, it is surprising how widely distributed their products were. Their forcible entry tools, for example (Halligans, Hayward Claws, San Francisco bars, etc.), show up all along the West Coast, from California to Washington. And, we’ve run across their well-known 8-pound pick-head axes in places as widely separated as Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, Atlanta, Georgia, and Indianapolis, Indiana. There is even an example of their equally popular 8-pound flathead axe– one found in the devastation of the World Trade Center– on display in the 9/11 Memorial in New York.
Iowa-American (IA-AM) started as one of many producers of common fire service hand tools, primarily those used by the Fire Department of New York– the New York pike pole, the Halligan hook and Halligan bar, plus the previously mentioned flat-head axe. They also offered refined versions of other popular East Coast hooks, including the so-called Universal hook and Sheetrock (or Drywall) hook. Perhaps most notably, they started producing several unique, “signature” tools for individual departments, like Boston’s “Rake,” San Francisco’s ultra-light hook, and a derivation of the defunct Chicago Fire Insurance Patrol’s “Patrol Bar,” making them accessible to the fire service at large. However, in spite of their broad range of offerings, as they launched an aggressive marketing campaign, it became clear, that Iowa-American had virtually no original, unique new products of its own design.
THE FIRE SAFETY GROUP. During this same period of time period– the early 1980’s– the Fire Safety Group (FSG), an ad hoc group of Iowa firefighters, was delivering a variety of two-day weekend courses aimed at a renewed awareness and expanded application of traditional municipal hook and ladder or “truck company” methods to suburban and rural fire operations (see background on the Fire Safety Group at the Hook + Ladder University website). IA-AM supported the group by providing some of its tools for use in FSG’s courses. And, in return, FSG instructors provided regular feedback and recommendations concerning those and other IA-AM products.
ORIGINS OF THE HAWK TOOL. Having made extensive use of IA-AM’s version of the Halligan hook in field training and in emergency operations, MalvenWorks founder Fred Malven experienced the tool’s numerous virtues as an overhaul tool. But, he also noted its limitations in performing certain other closely-related “support operations” functions. Having had previous interest, formal training, and experience in product design, he took on development of a tool that addressed these more broadly-based functions, as well. This was the beginning of what was to become the Hawk Tool. Its design followed a fairly normal, step-by-step, phased product development process. Over a period of three years, the project produced a nearly continuous stream of sketches, working drawings, wood study models and working prototypes. The prototypes were intended to be building blocks, steps toward the development of a single new tool. They were never intended for sale. But, with the success of a series of glossy catalogs, Martin Vitale, Iowa-American’s owner, was anxious to get new tools on the market. Consequently, virtually every time a newly revised prototype was prepared for field evaluation, a fair number of them were produced, added to the company’s catalog, and sold, side-by-side with previous prototypes and the company’s other hooks.
Although this rush to market incomplete designs was irritating and frustrating, at this point in time, the move has netted some fortunate outcomes from a historical archival standpoint. First, due to the success of the firm’s catalog marketing, each of the various prototypes enjoyed a surprising volume and geographical distribution of sales. So, there is a good physical record of each phase of the design process. And, since many of them are still in day-to-day use, the effectiveness of early design intentions can be studied through the experience of current users.
As designers and long-time, regular users of the Hawk Tool, we’ve always been interested in finding and documenting early examples of the tool, and even earlier examples of prototypes. And, whenever available, we’ve really relished accounts of user experiences with the tools– good, bad, indifferent; exciting or mundane. Only recently did it occur to us that some of our customers might also be interested in the history of their tools. So, in this section, we will gradually put together an account of significant steps in the development of our tools, starting with influences on the Hawk Tool.
OVERVIEW OF HAWK TOOL DEVELOPMENT. But, first, at the risk of sapping all of the fun of discovery out of the process, we’ll begin with a brief summary of Hawk Tool design process. It began with the goal of creating a multi-purpose “support operations” tool combined some of the best attributes of other tools we’d used. Because of its popularity (and its availability, due to our collaboration with Iowa-American Fire Equipment) much of the early work (especially phases I & II) involved modification of the highly successful Halligan HOOK. Readers will need to remember that this discussion revolves around FDNY Chief Hugh Halligan’s hook design, not his even more famous Halligan BAR.
In general, the design process progressed in five phases:
Phase I added width and a sharper, keener edge to the Halligan Hook’s “bottom” (i.e., downward-pointed) blade.
Phase II further flattened the downward blade, “corrected” the Halligan’s unnecessarily blunt point, and added some length and angle to the Halligan’s rear-facing “adze.”
Phase III (the first significant departure from the Halligan) introduced the first of three distinctive features of the Hawk Tool, the so-called “cross-cut” blades– one downwardly-rounded, longitudinal edge intersecting at 90° with the original downward-pointing, transverse blade.
Phase IV introduced the tool’s most distinctive feature But, for now, suffice it to say that the evolution of the tool can be distilled down to five steps or phases before it reached (much later) its current configuration. The most significant end-products of each phase are summarized below.
In future posts, we will identify and discuss some of our interesting encounters with the Hawk’s ancestors.
“HOOD ORNAMENTS.” The tools found on the front bumpers of a rig are an interesting subject in their own right. Other than the make, color, markings, lighting, and maybe the function of a unit’s front end, the tools mounted on the bumper often give a first-time visitor their first impression of a station or department. They’re sometimes a pretty good representation of the character of the crews that staff them. Are they traditionalists or early-adopters of the latest fads? Are the tools clean, dirty, or dusty? Do they look like they’ve been burnished by frequent use or never been used? Are they freshly painted, labeled, claimed by station or department markings, stickers, lettering, or “uglied up” to discourage misappropriation by others? What do they have to say about the people who ride their unit?
It’s hard to imagine all of the reasons why a specific tool (or set of tools) might be selected for this special status. But, a few explanations are:
They came mounted there when the unit was delivered.
The bumper is the only place they’ll fit or can be removed easily.
They are the most frequently used items.
They are important “must-have” parts of a set of tools/equipment that deploys from the front.
They’re the favorites of a particular station, crew, crew member or officer.
They’re scarce examples of “signature” tools that were once hallmarks of local operations but are no longer available.
They somehow symbolize the unit or crews mission, objectives, attitudes, identity, shared experiences, etc. and can, in a way, be likened to “hood ornaments” on a car, signaling information about the vehicle, its functions, and its occupants.
In general, the tools found there are selected because they address the highest priorities or most common functions addressed by the crew. So, in some stations the front-mount tools change every time the crew changes, reflecting individual or group differences. One shift may reflect a group of traditionalists who prefer a few proven, multifunctional “classics.” The next crew– maybe a group of “early adopters”– might switch them out for the latest new tools on the market, and so forth.
But, policies concerning equipping can vary considerably from station-to-station and department-to-department. So, if a rig’s front bumper arsenal stays the same day-after-day that may indicate that it’s prescribed and regulated by the department. It might indicate that a crew/department has, over time, refined, standardized and policed its equipping. At the other extreme, be a sign of ambivalence. Who knows? But, it can be a source of interesting speculation.
PHASE II HAWK ON CHARLOTTE’S TRUCK 13. An excellent first example of both front bumper tool loads and vintage Hawk prototypes in the field was found in a photo of Charlotte, North Carolina’s rearmount aerial, Truck 13 (Photos are from Charlotte Fire Department & Station 13 web sites).
Station 13’s apparatus stable in the early 2000’s when the photo of Truck 13’s front bumper was taken: an engine, a truck, and a 2-piece haz-mat unit.
Truck 13’s 2004 Spartan/Smeal quint; they now operate a close-to-identical 2015 model.
Station 13’s crew fabricating a bench for their local bus stop.
One example of Truck 13’s front bumper “hood ornament,” a 6′ NY Roofman’s Hook and a 4′ D-handled Hawk Phase II prototype.
As pictured at the time, on their 2004 Spartan/Smeal (in the bottom photo above), Truck Company 13 mounted a six-foot NY Roof Hook and a four-foot Hawk Phase II prototype with a large aluminum D-handle. In comparison to a Halligan/NY Roof Hook’s narrow profile and blunt point, the photo above shows the Phase II Hawk prototype’s sharper, more focused penetrating tip and wider lower “chopping” blade to good advantage. What is particularly eye-catching are the wide, bold color identification markings on the tools and their apparent high maintenance level.
It certainly isn’t clear (or expected) that the Hawk prototype was a standard fixture on Truck 13’s bumper set. On a busy rig, a tool is lucky to get a ride on the front, at all– never mind finding a spot as a regular. In fact, one gets the impression from photos of Truck 13’s 2015 Spartan/Smeal replacement, that tools may no longer be carried on the front bumper. Nevertheless, its a good day for us every time we receive a photo of one of our tools earning a front-row seat. Greetings and thanks to Charlotte’s Truck 13!